Monday, August 27, 2012

Risk Assessment Research Proposal

Toxic Hazard and Risk Assessment Research Proposal

Basically, the development of human society was accompanied by the implementation of new technologies and materials which were used to facilitate the life and work of people. At the same time, as technologies used in agriculture and industry grew more and more complicated, the threat of hazards related to human activities and materials used by people in the industrial and agricultural production increased dramatically. Nowadays, it is even possible to speak about the great threat human activities and, especially the use of hazardous chemical materials, expose to nature and to human life and health as well. What is meant here is the fact that people do not only facilitate their life but they also consciously expose themselves to the risk of dangerous hazards caused by human activities and, in this regard, chemical materials are particularly dangerous because their effects on human health are particularly dangerous.

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In this respect, the use of such materials as ammonia is particularly dangerous because this material is extremely dangerous but, at the same time, it is widely spread in agricultural and industrial production. This is why even such areas as the IUB one may be potentially exposed to the threat of chemical hazards, including those involving ammonia. Consequently, the prevention of such a threat should be one of the primary concerns of the local authorities and specialists working with such chemical materials, which are very dangerous for environment and human health.

The threat of ammonia hazard
As the matter of fact, ammonia is widely used in the modern industries and agriculture. At the same time, the use of ammonia in both industry and agriculture in Indiana as well as in any other part of the US is inevitably accompanied by the serious risk of ammonia gas emission and its consequences. It should be pointed out that ammonia is a really dangerous chemical material due to its flammability and, what is even important, its impact on human health is extremely destructive if the share of ammonia gas in the air consistently exceeds the natural norm. Potentially, the emission of ammonia gas may be cause explosions if its concentration is high and some source of fire is available or any other material which can provoke inflammation comes into contact with ammonia. As for human health proper, ammonia produces an extremely destructive impact on the respiratory system and can lead to the death of an individual exposed to the inhalation of ammonia gas. This is why the threat of ammonia to human health is obvious.

However, the situation is deteriorated by the fact that ammonia is widely spread and even though IUB, for instance, can hardly be named the center of industrial or agricultural production but still any accidents that can occur in the neighboring area may affect IUB as well because ammonia gas may move on quite a long distance on the condition that there is a wind that flows in the particular direction, i.e. in the direction of the IUB area threatening to the health of people that are there at the moment of the hazard.

Consumer exposure and vulnerability factors
In general, the threat of chemical hazards involving ammonia seem to be rather hypothetical in the case of IUB but, it is necessary to remember about the fact that ammonia gas emission can cover substantial territories in a case of the serious accident that occur on some plant or in the area of storage of ammonia. In such a situation, the distance from the area of accident to the IUB area may be not very effective barrier on the way of the ammonia gas spread to IUB and local population.
Naturally, it is necessary to admit the fact that people which are in the epicenter of an accident involving ammonia will suffer more injuries, for instance, employee of a farm or plant where ammonia is used ( Nevertheless, in the situation, when people living or working in the IUB area are uninformed about the approaching cloud of ammonia gas which is formed in the result of some accident the effects may be really disastrous because ammonia gas may really lead to lethal outcome in the result of the poisoning of human body. Obviously, if people fail to protect themselves from such a threat they will naturally be exposed to serious injuries or even the risk of getting killed by this poisonous chemical material.

Risk assessment of the threat
In such a situation, the risk assessment of the threat of ammonia hazards and the effective emergency management are of a paramount importance. In fact, it should be said that risk assessment may play the key role in the prevention of hazards involving ammonia because the condition of storage of ammonia are extremely important in the prevention of accidents while the use of the material in accordance with the existing standards makes the risk of a hazard minimal. This is why nowadays there is a variety of legislative acts that regulate the use and storage of ammonia that can be very helpful in the prevention of potential catastrophes (

In this respect, it is obvious that in order to make the existing norms and standards defined in legislative acts work effectively in relation to the storage and use of ammonia it is necessary to assess the areas where ammonia hazards can occur. This means that it is necessary to carefully research the environment and neighboring territories around IUB to identify the potential sources of ammonia threat. As soon as they are identified it is necessary to establish control over the use and storage of ammonia. At the same time, it is also necessary to inform people about the potential threat of ammonia since in a case of an explosion it may injure and kill many people while the gas emission of ammonia may cause even larger harm poisoning a larger number of people because it will affect not only those people who were working in a farm or plant where the emission occurs but also those who are in the area where the gas can move, including IUB.

Obviously, in such a situation, people should be immediately informed about the threat and they need to know what they should do in order to avoid the harmful impact of ammonia on their health. In this respect, the existing system of notification in IUB can be really effective ( since if people are located in the safe areas where ammonia gas cannot penetrate than the threat is minimal or reduced substantially.

However, for the more prevention of the negative effects of ammonia on human health it is necessary to inform people by means of educational programs, for instance, about its impact on humans and ways of protection against this threat. In addition, it is necessary to provide the local population not only with safe areas but also with respiratory systems that could protect them from the negative impact of ammonia gas.

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that the threat of ammonia hazards is quite probable due to the wide spread of this dangerous material in agriculture and industry. Nevertheless, the effective system of notification and availability of safe areas and respiratory systems can minimize the negative impact of ammonia gas on the health of people in the IUB area. At the same time, the prevention of hazards involving ammonia should be the primary concern of the local authorities and emergency services.
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