Friday, March 23, 2012

Research Paper on Topologies

Research Paper on Topologies

1. Introduction
In this research paper I will discuss mesh, bus, ring and star topologies, as well as explain Ethernet, token ring, FDDI and wireless. I will describe differences and similarities and also indicate advantages and disadvantages of each item. Topologies are undividable part of the network design and each company should analyze its needs and choose the most suitable network for effective work.

2. Mesh, bus, ring and star topologies
Bus topology has the common backbone to connect all the devices in the net. The single cable is involved, and if it doesn’t work, the whole network that is connected to it becomes unusable. This type of topology is easy to install, and do not require many cables. The most effective bus topology is when there is restricted number of devices. It can be physical and logical. It is the cheapest network to install, but there can be problems when adding new computers to it. Interesting fact about ring topology is that all messages travel through the scheme either clockwise or counterclockwise. Computers in the ring network are interconnected and each has two neighbors. The disadvantage of this type of topology is that when ob cable doesn’t work, the whole network is not working as well. Also, when the new computer to the network is added is should be placed between computers in the network, and in some cases this can be difficult.

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In star network all devices are connected to the central connection point. In comparison with other types of topologies, star network needs more cable, but the network is not dependable. If one computer fails, the whole network is not affected. But adding new device to chain is very simple.

Mesh topologies are connected primarily with the concept of routes. The advantage of this network is that messages can use different paths to reach the destination point. Mesh network can be rather expensive as each computer requires its own cable.

3. Ethernet, token ring, FDDI and wireless.
Ethernet is the series of frame-based computer networking technologies for LANs. It was developed in 1976 by Xerox Corporation and Intel. To reduce installation costs, point-to-point links are used, which are connected by means of hubs. It is more reliable then the use of coaxial cable. Stations of the Ethernet are interconnected by sending each other information packages. The standard of the Ethernet is IEEE 802.3. There are seven basic Ethernet frame formats, which include preamble (consists of 7 bytes), start-of –frame delimiter (1 byte), destination address, source addresses, length/type (2 bytes), data and frame check sequence. Ethernet can use either bus or star topology. In handling simultaneous demands it utilizes CSMA/CD method of access.

Token ring is the LAN, stations of which are organized in the form of ring topology. It was discovered in 1960. It is standardized as IEEE 802.5.

Computers in this type of network are able to be ranged by priorities. There 8 basic priority levels. And all computers are able to decide what machine will be controlling the ring. There can one Active monitor and others will become Standby Monitors. The role of the Active monitor is to follow and make sure that the network is successfully run and if any problems occur, identify and eliminate the machine that is causing problems and re-install the network once again. The Active Monitor performs ring polling function to know quickly which computer is causing problems, as well as provide the opportunity for other computers to know who is participating in the set network and to know NAUN.

Wireless refers to the electronic operations that interconnected without the cable use. The term “wireless” can be referred to any type of data transfer that is done without any wires. The distances can vary from short to very long. This term is more about telecommunications, but nowadays is play an outstanding role in internet/network technologies. Wireless is very helpful at home, when there is already one computer installed and the other computer can use the same services, as the main, by means of WI-FI. When traveling with laptop, wireless internet is very convenient. Other advantages of wireless devices include reaching places, where cable is not possible to be installed; it easily avoid obstacles, connect portable and temporary workstations, connect remote users or networks.

Application of wireless can be: microwave communication, infrared (for short-distances, remote controls, IRDA) and also radio frequency communication.

Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) serves as common data transmitter in LAN, and can be extended to the distance of almost 124 miles. Even though that formally this type of network is more token ring topology, it doesn’t utilize the protocol of token ring. It involves limited token protocol of token bus. This type of network is very convenient not also because it can cover large territories, but also it can serve thousands of users. As medium, FDDI utilizes optical cable and can be called counter-rotating token ring network. There are two token rings in this network- one is the main, and other is more supportive in case of first failure. Connection needed to FDDI is dual-attached.

So, The Fiber Distributed Data Interface implies a 100-Mbps token-passing, LAN architecture of dual-ring with the utilization of fiber-optic cable. FDDI is usually used as a backbone technology of high speed for its support of high bandwidth and can transfer data at longer distances than copper can.

4. Conclusion
In the conclusion I would like to summarize key point of my paper. There are different types of topologies as well as channels through which the data can be transmitted. There is no best or universal choice that would appear to be effective in all cases. Therefore, before choosing to install the topology or choosing the type of connection, the person should first understand what does he expects from it and include all factors into the decision-making process. The budget is also essential criterion in making choice. Therefore each system administrator should evaluate all possible risks and install the safest and securest type of network, which would require minimum interference and be protected from the outside invasion.
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